Coxarthrosis

pain in the hip joint

What is this disease with such an intricate name - coxarthrosis? . . This disease is a deforming arthrosis of the hip joint and is often also called osteoarthritis of the hip joint. Currently, coxarthrosis is the leader among diseases of the musculoskeletal system, which are of a degenerative-dystrophic nature. There are many reasons contributing to the onset of coxarthrosis disease, and therefore this disease has become widespread in all age groups.

Coxarthrosis refers to arthrosises that are not inflammatory in nature, in which first there are changes of a degenerative-dystrophic nature in the cartilage of the hip joint, which lines the surfaces of the articulating bones, and at later stages, bone changes already occur directly. In the course of such a gradually developing course of coxarthrosis disease, a violation of the naturally normal functions of the affected hip joint occurs, which ultimately leads to a violation of the functions of the musculoskeletal system of the sick person, in general.

For the most part, arthrosis of the hip joint affects people over the age of forty. Of course, coxarthrosis, like other other diseases, can be successfully treated without surgery, but only in its early stages. But in its later stages, it will hardly be possible to do without surgery, and only one thing can help to avoid disability - prosthetics of the joint affected by coxarthrosis. Unfortunately, people with coxarthrosis, not attaching importance to minor pain in the hip joint at the initial stage of the disease, avoid going to the doctor, and osteoarthritis of the hip joint, meanwhile, continues to progress day by day, gradually turning into a more neglected form.

healthy joint, joint affected by coxarthrosis

How coxarthrosis develops

Let's take a look at the mechanism of coxarthrosis disease itself. And let's start with the fact that the hip joint consists of two bones:

  1. the ball-like end of the femur itself;
  2. an acetabulum, similar to a small billiard pocket, located in the iliac pelvis;
  3. special articular cartilage on the surface of both bones, reminiscent of a sponge-like substance and necessary as a shock absorber, which compresses during movement and expands if it is absent;
  4. as well as the ligaments that form the cavity of the hip joint itself and thus form the joint capsule.

Surrounding the joint, in addition, there is muscle tissue, such as the thighs, gluteus and other muscles, the functionality of which also determines the condition of the hip joint.

During movement, when the articular cartilage is compressed, a specific fluid is “squeezed out” from it into the joint, which is a kind of lubricant for the bones that articulate in the joint. Also, the articular cartilage itself, in addition, performs the function of evenly distributing loads on the surface of the joint, being an excellent shock absorber during movement.

The very occurrence of coxarthrosis disease is primarily due to the fact that the nutrition of the cartilage of the hip joint is impaired. The cartilage becomes thinner, and subsequently disappears in places. If you do not take measures to stop this process, then in those places where the cartilage atrophy described above occurs, the bone itself will grow directly, thus trying to "fill" the resulting cavity of the joint cavity. As a result of such bone changes, osteophytes, that is, “spikes” on the bone, begin to appear. These deformations, in turn, lead to disruption of the congruence of the bones articulating in the hip joint and the subsequent "abrasion" of the still remaining healthy areas of the articular cartilage.

Causes of arthrosis of the hip joint

The causes of coxarthrosis, for which it occurs, can be divided into primary, having an unclear etiology, and secondary, as a consequence of other diseases, for example, such as:

  • dislocation of the hip, which is congenital;
  • hip dysplasia;
  • aseptic necrosis of the femoral head itself;
  • previous various injuries, such as a hip fracture;
  • Perthes disease;
  • inflammation of the hip joint;

Since coxarthrosis disease occurs not only of one, but both hip joints at the same time, it is quite possible to assert that bilateral coxarthrosis is a rarity. Although primary coxarthrosis often also involves the knee or spine.

Symptoms of coxarthrosis disease

The very first symptoms of coxarthrosis directly depend on the degree of damage to the hip joint, as well as on the stage of development of this disease, and the main ones are:

  • pain on movement, in the hip joint, and disappearing at rest;
  • resulting lameness;
  • stiffness in the hip joint;
  • downward progress in hip range of motion;
  • femoral muscle weakness and marked reduction in volume.

We will separately consider the symptoms of coxarthrosis, depending on the degree of the disease with this ailment:

  • Symptoms of the 1st degree of coxarthrosis: pain in the hip joint is moderate in nature, and only after the joint has been subjected to intense stress for a long time. After removing the load and rest, this syndrome is completely stopped. At the first degree of symptoms of coxarthrosis, the gait remains normal and the range of motion of the joint does not change.
  • Symptoms of the 2nd degree of coxarthrosis: pain in the hip joint is felt more intense than in the first degree, but in addition, it is projected into the groin area. Due to the developing muscle atrophy, the knee also begins to hurt, and quite often it is severe. Sometimes, with symptoms of second-degree coxarthrosis, pain begins to manifest itself at rest, and after the transferred load on the affected joint, a rather long rest is already required to stop it. Lameness begins to appear when running or walking for a long time. At the same time, the strength of the thigh muscles is rather reduced, and the range of motion of the joint is also underestimated.
  • Symptoms of the 3rd degree of coxarthrosis: persistent pain in the hip joint, which does not go away even after an extremely long rest or constant resting, even at night. The pain has already affected the entire leg. Against the background of pain syndrome, the patient develops insomnia and various sleep disorders. There is a strong atrophy of the muscles of the thigh, buttocks and lower leg, while the motor volume of the joint is practically minimal. When walking A sick person is forced to resort to aids, such as a cane, in order to move.

If such arthrosis of the hip joint develops only in the hip joint of one leg, then its weakened femoral muscles give impetus to the development of lateral displacement of the pelvis, due to which the length of the leg with the joint affected by coxarthrosis decreases.

Diagnosis of coxarthrosis

When diagnosing coxarthrosis, the symptoms of coxarthrosis described above, in combination with the data obtained from the radiographic examination of the patient, are taken into account. This technique provides an opportunity to determine not only the very degree of coxarthrosis, but the identification of the reasons that served as a catalyst for the development of coxarthrosis. The X-ray provides an excellent opportunity to identify changes that specifically entailed injury in the hip joint, which is directly related to the mechanisms of development of coxarthrosis.

In addition to the already listed diagnostic methods, the methods of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging can also be used, which provide an opportunity for a thorough detailed study of the developing pathology, such as the structure of bone tissue, the deformation of which is a companion of this ailment. With regards to magnetic resonance imaging, this method also allows one to assess the pathological disorders to which the soft tissues surrounding the joint affected by coxarthrosis have undergone.

apparatus

Treatment of arthrosis of the hip joint

The choice of treatment for coxarthrosis directly depends on the symptoms of this disease and its stage. Usually, with the first and second degrees of arthrosis of the hip joint, traditional conservative drug therapy is carried out, consisting of taking chondroprotectors, vasodilators and, if indicated, also muscle relaxants. During the period of time when coxarthrosis is especially acute, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are also used. It should be borne in mind that such treatment must necessarily be carried out by a specialist doctor, since self-medication, unlike traditional medicine, can have an extremely negative effect on the patient's internal organs and completely suppress the ability to restore hyaline cartilage.

Also, with arthrosis of the hip joint, various physiotherapeutic procedures and exercise therapy are prescribed.

Magnetotherapy is especially effective in combination with traditional medical treatment of arthrosis of the hip joint. The method of magnetotherapy in the early stages is especially effective - it allows you to avoid degenerative changes and turn the disease back. In the later stages, the method increases efficiency and quality of life, reduces the risk of complications in the affected joint.

The effect on the body of a patient with coxarthrosis by a diet does not directly have a therapeutic effect, but it is recommended for obese people to reduce body weight, since it makes it possible to reduce the load on the affected joint, thereby alleviating the acute symptoms of coxarthrosis.

endoprosthesis installation

As for the third degree of coxarthrosis, the symptoms of which are the most painful, the treatment, as such, is carried out only through surgery, for example, hip arthroplasty.

The endoprosthesis includes components that are functional analogs of the hip joint. This orthopedic product is installed inside the limb, which explains its name (endo - from the Greek. "Internal"). An artificial hip joint substitute performs a musculoskeletal function, but, unlike a natural joint, it does not form a lubricating fluid. Yes, it is not required, since this prosthesis is made of materials that slide easily and without any lubrication and do not collapse.

Statistical data indicate that after surgery, absolute restoration of the functions of a limb with deforming arthrosis of the hip joint is achieved in 95% of cases, which makes it possible to subsequently lead a fairly active lifestyle.

The service life of such a prosthesis is about 15 . . . 20 years, but at the end of its service life, a second operation is required to replace the worn-out endoprosthesis.

Please note,is IMPORTANT! Do not diagnose yourself!In case of symptoms of coxarthrosis, you should consult an orthopedic surgeon, as only a qualified specialist can make the correct diagnosis and prescribe the most optimal treatment.

Prevention of coxarthrosis disease

Coxarthrosis disease can be avoided if necessary prophylaxis of coxarthrosis is carried out:

  • mandatory and timely treatment of inflammatory diseases of the joints;
  • timely treatment of joint dysplasia;
  • correct and reasonable physical activity, especially resistance exercises, which must be done correctly;
  • mandatory control of your body weight, keeping it normal;
  • avoid joint injury.