Loin - the area of the back from the ribs to the coccyx. There are many nerve endings here, and therefore pain in this area is a common reason for seeking medical help. Up to 90% of people experience pain in the lower back periodically or constantly. There is a lot of pressure on this part of the back - from 50 kg in the prone position to 220 kg in a sitting position, if the person slouches at the same time.
Let's consider the causes of back pain, methods of diagnosis and therapy.
Causes of pain
Lower back pain can be both a symptom of normal overexertion and a signal of dangerous diseases.
By no means in all cases the causes of pain lie in disorders of the spine - diseases of the internal organs can also affect sensations in the lumbar region.
Possible causes related to bones, joints and muscles
The exact answer to the question of why the back hurts can only be given by a doctor after a set of diagnostic measures.
Possible causes of pain directly related to the condition of the spine, bone tissue, intervertebral discs:
- Osteochondrosis is a disease in which degenerative and dystrophic lesions of the intervertebral discs occur.
- Intervertebral hernias and protrusions are diseases associated with rupture of the annulus fibrosus.
- Displacement of the intervertebral discs.
- Scoliosis or kyphosis - curvature of the spine.
- Muscle spasm with overexertion.
- Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the space inside the spine, leading to compression of the nerves and spinal structures.
- Spondyloarthrosis is a disease of the facet joint of the spine.
- Compression fracture.
- Spondylolisthesis - slipping of an overlying vertebra from an underlying one.
- Ligament sprain or tear.
- Bechterew's disease (ankylosing spondylitis) - inflammation of the intervertebral joints
Causes in women
The causes of back pain in the lumbar region in women and men can have different origins. In women, in addition to general diseases of internal organs, bones, muscles and ligaments, pain in the lumbosacral spine is often manifested by gynecological diseases:
- Inflammatory processes in the ovaries.
- Ovarian cysts.
- Torsion of the ovarian cyst pedicle.
- Endometriosis is a pathological proliferation of the endometrium of the uterus.
- Myoma and fibroids of the uterus are benign tumors.
- Malignant tumors.
With the above deviations, women feel aching, pulling pain (except for the torsion of the ovarian cyst leg: in this case, the woman will feel acute pain). In addition, in women in these cases, there will be an increase in temperature, a delay in the menstrual cycle, and pathological vaginal discharge.
Menses may also be accompanied by back pain. At this time, the level of estrogens and prostaglandins in the woman's blood sharply increases, which lower the pain threshold. Contractions of the uterus, its pressure on the rectum and exfoliation of the decidual layer of the endometrium cause unpleasant sensations.
Note. In pregnant women (especially in the third trimester), there is a significant increase in the load on the lower back and the divergence of the joints. Such changes are needed so that the child can pass the birth canal. In this case, pain is considered normal if it is not accompanied by abnormal vaginal discharge.
Infectious diseases can be other causes of pain in the lumbar spine. For example, osteomyelitis is a disease of the bones and bone marrow caused by pyogenic bacteria.
Another reason of an infectious nature, which causes back pain and ache in the lower back in a child or an adult, is tuberculous spondylitis. This disease often occurs in young patients.
Tumors in the lumen of the spinal canal, benign or malignant, can also cause back pain. Patients with pyelonephritis and urolithiasis, rupture of the abdominal aorta and hemorrhage in the retroperitoneal tissue often complain of similar pain.
Girdle pain on the left and right in the lower back indicates pathology of internal organs (stomach, kidneys, intestines)
Important!To establish an accurate diagnosis, you need a complete diagnosis of internal organs and skeleton, as well as a doctor's consultation.
First, you need to go through a specialist consultation. Which doctor should I contact for pain in the sacrum and lower back? It is worth visiting a neurologist who will take a history and make a preliminary diagnosis. If necessary, this specialist will refer you to another specialist or for additional examinations.
Diagnosis for low back pain includes:
- Radiography.It is suitable for checking the condition of bones, diagnosing arthritis and fractures. In addition to conventional radiography, highly specialized studies are carried out:
- Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography.These methods help in the study of bones and soft tissues: muscles, ligaments, nerves, blood vessels.
- Blood test.This is done to check for infections in the blood.
- Electromyography.The test checks the electrical impulses produced by the nerves and how the muscles respond to them. Reveals nerve compression.
- Doppler ultrasound.The method helps to ascertain the patency of the carotid and vertebral arteries.
When to see a doctor
Back pain is not always a reason to run to the doctor. If it occurs after overexertion or before menstruation in a woman, do not worry. Consult a specialist for constant aching pain in the lumbosacral region, with severe pain of unknown origin.
It is also worth contacting immediately if there are back pains radiating to the buttock, leg (especially in cases where it extends below the knee), causing tingling and numbness in these areas. Such symptoms indicate involvement of peripheral nerves, which may indicate an exacerbation of any disease.
Important!It is worth thinking seriously about your health if pain causes problems with urination or defecation (for example, incontinence), accompanied by fever or sudden weight loss, or appeared due to mechanical damage.
Choosing a way to get rid of back pain, it is important to remember that full treatment is impossible without finding out the cause of the discomfort. The elimination of symptoms does not imply a recovery of the body. To establish a diagnosis and prescribe the correct treatment, consult your doctor!
What to do if the lower back hurts and aches very badly? Before relieving back pain with pain medications, NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) are taken, which, in addition to the anti-inflammatory effect, have an analgesic effect. These drugs help with pain that occurs during muscle spasm and inflammation.
Help.There are a wide variety of analgesics available, but the specific drug is prescribed by your doctor.
Doctors note that persistent, chronic back pain often causes psychological problems, insomnia, emotional disorders and depression. Since their manifestations are associated with psychosomatics, side problems lead to even greater somatic abnormalities. In these cases, after consultation with a psychiatrist, antidepressants are prescribed.
Home treatment with folk remedies will not eliminate the cause of the pain, but will reduce the symptoms. Remember that refusing to observe a specialist and traditional therapies can be detrimental to the body.
Here are some popularly tested recipes:
- Mustard compress.Dilute the mustard powder in warm water to a consistency resembling sour cream. Apply the mixture to the skin and insulate. To avoid skin burns, do not hold the compress for more than 5 minutes. If pain occurs, immediately remove the compress and rinse the skin with water.
- Cologne based grind. In a bottle of cologne, add two vials of a 3% solution of iodine, five red bitter peppers and two bottles of valerian tincture. Mix the ingredients and place in a dark place for a day. Lubricate the sore spot with the resulting mixture at night, wrapping it with a scarf after that.
- Egg white, incense and soap compress.Mix 1 packet of white incense, 1 tbsp. a spoonful of grated laundry soap and 2 egg whites whipped into a thick foam. Apply the mixture to a woolen cloth and wrap it around the lower back.
Exercise therapy and massage
For back pain, it is useful to perform static or simple dynamic exercises, which eliminate the risk of sprains and ligaments rupture, muscle strain.
- Side bar.Lie on the floor with your elbow on the floor, just under your shoulder. Bend or straighten your knees depending on which difficulty level you are ready for. Lift yourself up with your hips so that your body forms an even diagonal line. Hold for 10-20 seconds and repeat on the other side. Do 5-8 reps on each side. After a while, you can increase the approach time to a minute. This exercise strengthens the abdominal muscles, arms and back.
- Child's pose.Get on all fours. Lower your buttocks to your heels, stretch your arms in front of you, gradually straightening them. Lower your head to the floor. Hold the position for 30-40 seconds. This exercise stretches your ligaments and back muscles.
- Seated crunches.Sit on the floor, bend your right knee and put it on the floor, throw your left leg over the right, placing it on the outside of the right thigh. Pull your right foot closer to your right buttock. Twist the body by bending your right arm at the elbow and placing it behind your left knee. Hold the position for 30-40 seconds and repeat the exercise on the other side. The exercise stretches the ligaments and muscles of the legs and back.
How to treat pain in the lower back and in the lumbar region if it has become chronic? Massage will be an effective tool. During the procedure, the patient lies down on a hard, flat surface.
Before starting treatment of diseased areas, the specialist massages the healthy part of the back. Sometimes the massage is carried out using warming ointments, essential oils.
How to treat severe pain? Doctors offer complex therapy. Methods under the general name "physiotherapy" are effective.
- electrophoresis - improves blood supply to tissues and conductivity of peripheral nerve fibers, accelerates the process of drug delivery to the desired place in the body;
- magnetic and laser therapy;
- medicinal baths (radon, hydrogen sulphide, turpentine);
- thermal procedures.
You won't have to think about how to heal your back and remove the throbbing pain in the lower torso if you take preventive measures in time. Maintain correct posture in any position of the body: sitting, lying down, lifting weights and walking. Watch for moderate physical activity, avoiding overstrain of the back.
Pay special attention to the selection of a sleeping mattress: it should be semi-hard or hard. Give preference to narrow pillows or replace them with neck bolsters. After waking up, it is good to do a little warm-up, while reading, you should not tilt your head too much - this overstrains the neck muscles, which affects the condition of the back, and in the future leads to problems with the lower back.
The spine is the support of the whole organism. The state of internal organs depends on his health. Low back pain can indicate the presence of abnormalities in this important structure, as well as systemic diseases. Monitor your health, lead an active lifestyle, and diseases will bypass you.