Arthrosis of the knee joint - the first symptoms and methods of treatment

The disease of arthrosis has many varieties. For example, a disease of the hip joint is called coxarthrosis, and the knee is called gonarthrosis.

The method of treatment for all subspecies is usually the same. But still, many people do not know how arthrosis differs from gonarthrosis of the knee joint.

On this basis, many erroneous uses of these terms have appeared among patients with such a problem.

Causes of occurrence

Gonarthrosis is a disease of the knee joint with damage to the cartilage tissue. Many people mistakenly believe that the disease is characteristic only of the elderly, as it is degenerative. But, as practice shows, gonarthrosis in young people appears more often.

This is confirmed by the causes of the disease:

the use of a medical patch for arthrosis of the knee joint
  • knee injuries (fractures, dislocations, cracks);
  • lifting weights, strong physical activity without appropriate training;
  • inflammation of the joints due to the effects of various factors, including hypothermia;
  • excess weight, as it leads to a heavy load on the joints and their subsequent degeneration;
  • genetic predisposition.

As you can see, all the factors of the appearance of gonarthrosis are more typical for young people, since they lead an active lifestyle.

Although, due to excess weight, the disease can also appear in pensioners. According to statistics, after 50 years, gonarthrosis is more often manifested in women. This is due to the restructuring of the body, changes in metabolic processes.

Principles and types of treatment

joint pain with knee arthrosis

Arthrosis in general are chronic diseases, therefore, they need to be treated for a long time. Therapy can be surgical or conservative.

With both the first and the second method, doctors try to somehow influence the cause of the disease, as well as eliminate pathological symptoms.

It should be noted that surgical intervention is more typical for stages 3-4 of arthrosis.On the fourth, it is inevitable, and on the third, you can still try to overcome the disease with conservative methods.

Additionally, it is recommended to use special complexes of gymnastic exercises, for example, the Bubnovsky technique.

In addition to the destruction of cartilage by gonarthrosis, muscle fibers and ligaments are subject to destruction. The goal of treatment is:

  • getting rid of pain;
  • elimination of inflammation;
  • removal of edema of the periarticular region;
  • suspension of the destruction of cartilage, its full or partial restoration;
  • return to full life and freedom of movement.

Even in cases where a person cannot completely cure arthrosis of the knee joint, he can partially return to normal life through therapy and prevention. The condition persists until the next relapse.

Conservative method

This method of therapy is used in most cases and is the main one. As a rule, patients are treated in this way at the initial and middle stages of gonarthrosis. All actions consist in the use of drugs (tablets, capsules, injections) with chemically active substances.

For treatment, the following can be prescribed:

  • analgin;
  • chondroprotectors;
  • non-steroidal drugs;
  • synovial prostheses;
  • glucocorticosteroids.
knee replacement for arthrosis

Other conservative methods include treatment with various ointments, mud baths, etc.

Recently, gymnastics and light physical education have become very popular to stop the course of the disease or the possible recovery of the patient.

The body reacts heavily to non-steroidal drugs. Nevertheless, they are widely used in the treatment of arthrosis due to their multifunctional action:

  • elimination of swelling in the joint;
  • relief from pain;
  • treatment of inflammatory processes.

Because of these properties, doctors are increasingly giving preference to just such drugs, rather than traditional analgesics.

Glucocorticosteroids are synthetic drugs that can replace natural hormones produced by the adrenal glands. If you compare them with non-steroidal drugs, then glucocorticosteroids are much stronger. In addition, they have antiallergic effect.

Chondroprotectors act directly on the cartilage and are completely safe treatments for knee arthrosis (gonarthrosis).They are obtained from the bone structure of animals, cartilage of fish, shells of crustaceans. The preparations are a building material for cartilage, they improve metabolic processes and proper nutrition of the joint.

In addition to the use of medicines, during treatment, recovery and prevention, the following are prescribed:

  • physiotherapy;
  • physiotherapy;
  • various massages;
  • visiting sanatoriums and resorts.
therapeutic gymnastics for arthrosis of the knee joint

All this allows the patient to return to normal life, fixes the result obtained with the help of conservative treatment.

In addition, classes are easy. A very useful exercise for the knee joint with gonarthrosis is to roll a ball with the foot on the floor, or another cylindrical object, for example, a rolling pin.

Surgical intervention

If it is not possible to cure the disease with the help of medications or therapeutic exercises, then an operation must be performed. It can be done on an open or closed joint. At the same time, surgical methods are being improved every day, and new ones are being added to the previous ones, carried out on modern equipment.

New methods of conducting operations include:

  • microsurgical intervention to restore damaged cartilage tissue;
  • treatment with a laser beam with the required characteristics - thickness, power, etc. ;
  • creation of an electrolyte plasma field 1 mm thick;
  • arthroscopy;
  • endoprosthetics - replacement of parts of the joint with artificial prostheses.

Modern surgical methods are low-traumatic and allow a huge number of different manipulations with the joint.

surgical treatment of knee arthrosis

Traditional medicine recipes

Not always conservative methods of treatment can give the maximum result in the treatment of gonarthrosis. As additional means, you can use recipes of traditional medicine.

To get rid of knee pain and crunching, you can use the following recipe:

  • 150 g garlic;
  • 4 lemons with peel;
  • 250 g of celery roots.

Grind all components in a meat grinder, mix and pour boiling water. Then put in a saucepan, close tightly with a lid and refrigerate. Take 60-70 g 3 times a day for a month. If pains appear, then you can repeat the course or carry it out every six months for prevention.

You can also use this recipe:

  • beat two eggs and mix with 4 tablespoons of salt;
  • apply the mixture to the bandage and apply to the sore spot.

The procedure must be repeated two times in a row. Do not remove the bandage until the mixture is dry.

To make a medicinal ointment, you will need the following components:

folk recipe for arthrosis of the knee joint
  • 200 g of alcohol;
  • 4 egg whites;
  • 50 g camphor;
  • 50 g mustard powder.

Add mustard and camphor alternately to the alcohol. Beat the protein in another container, and then mix together. The ointment is applied to the sore spot.

Of course, heavy physical activity in athletes is the same common cause of gonarthrosis as aging of the joints over time.

But recently, cases of the appearance of the disease without such root causes have become more frequent. People, on the contrary, lead a sedentary lifestyle, which is why they gain extra pounds.

The load on the joints increases and prevents them from staying healthy for a long time.

The difference between arthrosis and gonarthrosis

Not everyone understands what is the difference between gonarthrosis and arthrosis of the knee joint.For gonarthrosis, only knee damage is characteristic, while arthrosis itself is the name of a group of joint diseases that can affect any joints.

In the theory of medicine, there are many diseases, in the name of which there is a part of "arthrosis" - osteoarthritis, polyarthrosis, coxarthrosis, gonarthrosis. In this regard, ignorant people do not always correctly understand the meaning of each of them, thinking that all these are synonyms.

Gonarthrosis can be easily confused with such diseases:

  • arthritis;
  • vascular knee pain;
  • periarthritis - inflammation of the knee tendons;
  • damage to the meniscus.

But it is still possible to distinguish gonarthrosis from these diseases. For example, damage to the meniscus (meniscopathy) is a disease that begins with a sharp and unexpected pain in the knees after an unsuccessful movement, and gonarthrosis develops and progresses over the years. If meniscopathy is not treated, then pain will appear from time to time, but bone deformation will not occur.

With coxarthrosis (a disease of the hip joint), reflective pain in the knees is often felt, but the two diseases can be distinguished from each other in the following ways:

  • with gonarthrosis, a person can calmly move his legs in the hip joint, spread them to the sides;
  • with coxarthrosis, on the contrary, the patient can freely bend and unbend the knee;
  • if pain is felt in both joints, then it can be assumed that this is polyarthrosis.

Arthritis is characterized by joint inflammation and sudden onset, but pain does not affect joint mobility (as in periarthritis) and is eliminated by warming ointments. With such a disease, edema, high fever, and increased pain at night appear.

Vascular pain occurs due to circulatory disorders - this often affects young people under the age of 20. This is due to the rapid growth of the whole organism.

Thus, arthrosis is the general name for the disease, and gonarthrosis is the name indicating the localization (knee). That is why it is true to say either "arthrosis of the knee joint" or "gonarthrosis", but not "gonarthrosis of the knee joint". And it is quite possible to determine an accurate diagnosis thanks to careful research and personal observations.

Knee arthrosis (gonarthrosis): diagnosis and treatment

The knee joint is a wonderful flexion and extension mechanism that nature has provided us with. At rest, it happens only for people with disabilities and too obese people who have lost the ability to move.

Count how many times a day he makes movements, and you will come to the conclusion that the knee is the most mobile part of the SLM. It is no wonder that diseases often choose him as their target.

One of these is gonarthrosis or arthrosis of the knee joint.. . .

knee pain with arthrosis

Causes of arthrosis of the knee joint

It is difficult to say what causes early cartilage deficiency in some people. It is generally believed that a disturbed metabolism is to blame, in which the metabolism of amino acids and important trace elements is slow or incorrect.

Here, in turn, the following reasons are to blame:

  1. Certain immune-related diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis)
  2. Disregard for themselves: Sports and movement, full-fledged nutrition containing a full range of vitamins, amino acids and minerals are often put off by people somewhere far away for "later" ("from Monday, of course, I'll start")
  3. From birth, a disturbed natural balance is the so-called hereditary causes. It is quite easy to be convinced of a genetic predisposition: look at what your grandparents are sick with and ask them what their ancestors were sick with.
  4. Disrupted hormonal balance: especially such violations hit the female body during a period of estrogen deficiency - an important hormone necessary for osteosynthesis. It is not for nothing that most of the victims of arthrosis are women of a beautiful mature age, when they are not old at all, but already wisdom, that is, the milestone "over 50"
  5. Vascular diseases: Often, arthrosis is combined with venous insufficiency, venous thrombosis and other diseases
  6. Mental state: If you think that stress only spoils your mood, you are wrong - stress can slow down metabolism to a state of suspended animation
  7. Too much weight is a risk factor for arthrosis

What are the symptoms that make it possible to suspect this bad pathology?

Symptoms of gonarthrosis by stages

At different stages, their distinctive features, but they are united by the gradual development of the disease:

You can't suddenly stop walking because of pain: a sharp, sudden pain symptom in the knee most likely speaks of an injury.

symptoms of joint gonarthrosis

First stage. . . In the first stage, the following symptoms occur:

  • Mild pain after long walking, climbing stairs, etc.
  • Stiffness after resting
  • There is no deformity in the knee, but it may be somewhat swollen due to accumulating fluid: this phenomenon is called synovitis. Fluid can collect even in the posterior part - the popliteal fossa, forming a cyst, which is often mistaken for a cancer by frightened patients. The cyst usually resolves easily after treatment with injections of NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) or glucocorticosteroids

Second stage

At the second stage, the following signs are noticed:

  • Increased pain after exertion and movement and the appearance of a characteristic rough crunch
  • Increasing morning stiffness
  • Moving all the way or even up to 90 degrees is accompanied by a painful symptom, sometimes so strong that it becomes impossible to complete it
  • Due to the onset of deformities, the bones thicken and become rough - this can be determined by feeling
  • Synovitis may get worse

Third stage

At the third stage, which is already defined as late deforming arthrosis of the knee joint, symptoms appear:

  • Constant pain that does not go away even at night: The knee aches and twists, especially in cold, damp weather
  • A sharp reduction in the range of motion: no more than 90 degrees, or even less
  • Changes in gait: the patient begins to limp, walks slowly on bent legs, waddling, walking up the stairs is especially difficult
  • Visible severe deformity with mixing of the axes of the joints - because of this, the legs take the form of the letter "X" or "O" (such signs are called hallux valgus).
  • At this stage, the cartilage, as a rule, is already completely destroyed, and ossification (ossification) occurs in the ligaments
  • Subsequently, the surface of the joint becomes overgrown with calcium deposits, due to which the knee acquires a bumpy uneven appearance
  • Due to severe deformities and lack of synovial fluid, movements in the knee become extremely painful
  • Almost complete immobility of the knee gradually occurs - late deforming arthrosis of the knee joint
deforming arthrosis of the knee

Treatment of gonarthrosis

Treatment of this disease is complex and long, effective only in the early stages. In the latter, conservative treatment plays only a facilitating role for the patient.

Diagnostics. . . An important preliminary stage is diagnostics.

what does gonarthrosis of the knee joint look like
  • It is best to diagnose and determine if the cause of pain is trauma or arthrosis with the help of X-ray or MRI of the knee joint.
  • Arthrosis is diagnosed if it is noticed: dystrophy or absence of cartilage tissue and a small gap between the joint and the capsule

Conservative treatment

In exacerbations, the most important condition for treatment:

  • Compliance with rest and light load
  • Taking painkillers (with severe pain - in the form of intra-articular injections)
  • In the third to fourth stages of arthrosis, injections with a liquid to lubricate the joints are also prescribed.

With gonarthrosis, the following types of physiotherapy are effective:

  • SWT (shock wave therapy)
  • electromyostimulation
  • acupuncture
  • magnetotherapy
  • radio frequency therapy, etc.
injections for the treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint

Rehabilitation treatment

To avoid contractures and even greater immobility, exercises for the knees should be started immediately after the acute pain subsides - for this, exercise therapy is prescribed under the supervision of a rehabilitation therapist. Also, there is a long-term cyclic intake of substitutes for natural cartilage components - chondroprotective drugs.

Attention:In the third degree, arthrosis of the knee joint cannot be cured with chondroprotectors.. . .

Surgery

Effective treatment of late arthrosis is only surgical - replacement of a joint that has lost its functions with an endoprosthesis.

However, one must remember:

  • in old age, the engraftment of the prosthesis is slower
  • there may be pain for a year after the operation
  • need long-term rehabilitation with mechanotherapy and complex exercise therapy

If the patient refuses surgery, then conservative supportive treatment is prescribed, the purpose of which is to combat pain and preserve the motor function of the knee.

What is often confused with arthrosis of the knee joint - gonarthrosis

  • When diagnosing gonarthrosiserrors occur just as often, if not more often than in the diagnosis of diseases of the hip joints.
  • Below is a list of diseases that are most often mistaken for arthrosis of the knee joint (gonarthrosis).
  • From the practice of Dr. Evdokimenko,most often, arthrosis of the knee joint is confused with the following diseases:

Meniscus injury (meniscopathy) and knee block

Meniscus injuries and knee blockages occur in people of all ages, both young and old. Men and women get sick equally often. One knee joint is usually damaged.

Unlike gonarthrosis, the disease develops rapidly. As a rule, after an unsuccessful movement when walking, running or jumping, a person hears a crunch in the knee and feels acute pain in the joint. After 10-15 minutes, the acute pain subsides slightly, the person can move. But the next day or every other day, the knee swells, and the pain sensations intensify again.

Without proper treatment, the disease continues for years - the pains subside, then reappear. But compared with gonarthrosis, with meniscopathy, deformation of the bones of the knee joint rarely occurs - unless damage to the meniscus provokes the development of arthrosis of the knee. And this, it should be noted, also happens quite often.

Arthrosis of the hip joint (coxarthrosis)

The diagnosis of "gonarthrosis" is often mistakenly made in the case of "reflected" pain, which often occurs with arthrosis of the hip joint, and extending from the hip joint to the knee.

But these conditions are very easy to differentiate - with arthrosis of the hip joint, the mobility of the knee does not decrease at all, the knee bends and unbends easily and painlessly.

But the ability of a person suffering from arthrosis of the hip joint is sharply reduced to rotate the leg "from the hip", to spread the legs to the sides.

A person suffering from gonarthrosis, on the contrary, easily rotates his leg from the hip, and easily spreads his legs to the sides. But bends the knee with difficulty and squats down with pain.

Arthritis

The knee joints are the most vulnerable joints in the human body. In addition to arthrosis and meniscopathy, knee joints can be affected by any of the arthritis described in the second part of the book - reactive, rheumatoid, psoriatic, gout, ankylosing spondylitis and articular rheumatism.

People of any age suffer from arthritis, but most often the onset of the disease occurs at a young age.

With arthritis, one or both knees can become inflamed.

A characteristic feature of arthritic inflammation of the knee joint is a rapid onset (in 1-3 days), with obvious swelling and swelling of the knee, as well as increased pain in the affected joint at night (at about 3-4 am). That is, the pain at night, at rest, can be stronger than when walking. With arthrosis, as you remember, the pain decreases at night.

In addition, almost any arthritis leads to inflammation of not one, but several joints at once: in addition to the knees, the joints of the fingers and toes, elbow joints, ankle joints and heel tendons become inflamed and swollen in any combination.

Vascular knee pain

Many people are familiar with these pains due to poor circulation in the knee joints. They usually begin in adolescence, during a period of active growth - since the development of blood vessels in fast-growing adolescents often does not keep pace with the accelerated growth of bones.

Once it has arisen, vascular pain in the knees can accompany a person almost all his life. But their intensity usually decreases after 18–20 years (and does not increase with age, as is the case with arthrosis). And unlike arthritic pain, vascular knee pain is not accompanied by a decrease in knee mobility.

Pain sensations are usually symmetrical, that is, they are equally pronounced in the right and left knee; occur when the weather changes, in the cold, with colds and after physical exertion. At such moments, suffering people complain that their knees are spinning.

In most cases, vascular pain in the knees is easily eliminated by rubbing in warming ointments, massage and self-massage (vigorous rubbing of the knees), or by taking vasodilators. No special therapy is required for this condition.

Inflammation of the knee tendons (goosebone periarthritis)

Mostly women are ill, most often over the age of 40. The pain usually occurs when walking down stairs or when carrying weights, heavy bags. When walking calmly on a flat surface, pain is extremely rare.

The pain caused by periarthritis does not extend to the entire knee. It focuses exclusively on the inside of the knees, about 3- below the point at which the knees will touch when the legs are brought together. And unlike arthrosis with periarthritis, there is no limitation of knee mobility, the leg bends and unbends at the knee as expected, in full.